Application background of aluminum alloy in automobile industry
The first people to use aluminum in automobiles were indians. According to records, in 1896, indians took the lead in making automobile crankcases out of aluminum.In the early 20th century, aluminum had a certain application in the manufacture of luxury cars and racing cars. Cars with aluminum bodies began to appear, such as Henry Ford's Model T and ferrari 360 racing cars in Europe in the 1920s and 1930s.
Aluminum sheet for automobile manufacturing can be divided into casting aluminum alloy and deformation aluminum alloy.Casting aluminum alloy in the automobile use most, accounts for more than 80%, which is divided into gravity casting parts, low-pressure casting parts and other special casting parts.Deformation aluminum alloy includes sheet, foil, extrusion, forging, etc.Although there are some differences in the varieties of aluminum alloy materials used in industry all over the world, they are basically the same.Its variety composition: the casting accounts for about 80%, the forging accounts for 1% ~ 3%, the rest is processed materials.The deformation aluminum alloy accounts for 36% in American automobile industry.
1.1 application of cast aluminum alloy
Cast aluminum alloy has excellent casting performance.Suitable alloy and casting method can be selected according to the requirements of using purpose, parts shape, dimensional accuracy, quantity, quality standard, mechanical properties and economic benefits.Cast aluminum alloy is mainly used for casting engine cylinder block, clutch shell, rear axle shell, steering gear shell, transmission, distribution mechanism, oil pump, water pump, rocker cover, wheel, engine frame, brake clamp, cylinder and brake disc and other non-engine components.
1.2 application of deformed aluminum alloy
Deformation of aluminium alloy is mainly used for manufacturing in the car door, trunk body panels, such as bumper, engine cover, the wheel spokes, wheel cap, round outside act the role of the shielding cover, brake assembly, silencing cover, anti-lock braking system, heat exchanger, body frame, seat and trunk base plate structure and decoration, such as the dashboard.
1.2.1 aluminum alloy for body plate parts
The application proportion of plates in cars is increasing. For example, the 6000 series (ai-mg-si series) aluminum alloy plates after heat treatment (such as T4, T6, T8) can well meet the requirements of automobile shells and can be used as body frame materials.Audi A8 adopts this series of alloy aluminum for body sheet metal parts.In addition, 2000 series (ai-cu-mg), 5000 series (ai-mg) and 7000 series (ai-mg-zn-cu) aluminum alloys can also be applied to body materials.In recent years, the "mouth", "day", "purpose" and "field" shaped thin plate and hollow profile have been developed by using 6000 series and 7000 series high-strength aluminum alloy.